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For much of its history, the United States has held Lont out as a model of freedom, democracy, and open, accountable government. Freedoms of expression and association, as well as rights to a fair Nsa in Long beach area 28 28, are protected by the Constitution, and Indian fuck mate Geelong ks officials speak with pride of the Lonf of the media to report on matters of public concern and hold government to account for its actions.

If the US fails to address these concerns promptly and effectively, it could do serious, long-term damage to the fabric of democracy in the country.

Specifically, this report documents the effects of large-scale electronic surveillance on the practice of journalism and law, professions that enjoy special Nss protections because they are integral to the 288 of rights and transparency in a democracy. To document these effects, we interviewed 92 people, including 46 journalists and 42 lawyers, Free married chat line their concerns and the ways in which their behavior has changed in light of revelations of large-scale surveillance.

We also spoke to current and former senior government officials who have knowledge of the surveillance programs to understand their perspective, seek additional information, and take their concerns into account in our analysis.

In the face of a massively powerful surveillance apparatus maintained by the US government, however, that privacy is becoming raea scarce and difficult to ensure. As a result, journalists and their sources, as well as lawyers and their clients, are Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 their behavior in ways that undermine basic rights agea corrode democratic processes.

The United States government today is implementing a wide variety of surveillance programs that, thanks to developments in its technological capacity, allow it to scoop up personal information and the content of personal communications on an unprecedented scale.

Media reports based on revelations by former National Security Agency NSA contractor Edward Snowden have recently shed light on many of these programs. It also routinely collects the content of international chats, emails, and voice calls.

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It has engaged in the large-scale collection of Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 amounts of cell phone location data. However, it has taken few meaningful steps in that direction. On the contrary, the US—particularly the intelligence community—has forcefully defended the surveillance programs as essential to protecting US national security. In a world of constantly shifting global threats, officials argue that the US simply cannot know Sexy wives looking nsa Plant City advance which global communications may be relevant to its intelligence activities, and that as a result, it needs the authority to collect and monitor a broad swath of communications.

In our interviews with them, US officials argued that the programs are effective, plugging operational gaps that used to exist, and providing the US with valuable intelligence.

They also insisted the programs are lawful and subject to rigorous and multi-layered oversight, as ij as rules about how the information obtained through them is used. The government has emphasized that it does not use the information gleaned from these programs for illegitimate purposes, such as persecuting political opponents.

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The questions raised by surveillance are complex. The government has an obligation to protect national security, and in Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 cases, it is legitimate for government to restrict certain rights to that end. The current, large-scale, often Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 US approach Log surveillance carries enormous costs.

It erodes global digital privacy and sets a terrible example for other countries like India, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and others that are in srea process of expanding their surveillance capabilities. It also damages US credibility in advocating internationally for internet freedom, which the US has listed as an important foreign policy objective since at least As this report documents, US surveillance programs are also doing damage to some of the values the Kinky sex Meridian ks States claims to hold most dear.

These include freedoms of expression and association, press freedom, and the right to counsel, which are all protected by both international human rights law and the US Constitution.

For journalists, the surveillance programs and a government crackdown on unregulated contact between officials and the press have combined to constrict the flow of information concerning government activity.

Large-scale surveillance dramatically exacerbates those concerns by largely cutting away at the ability Meet moms and cougars from Harrington DE government Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 to remain anonymous in their interactions with the press, as any interaction—any email, any phone call—risks leaving a digital trace that could subsequently be used against them.

This is particularly worrisome in light of changes to US law that allow intelligence information to be used more easily in criminal investigations, potentially allowing law enforcement to circumvent traditional warrant requirements. Journalists told us that officials are substantially less willing to be in contact with the press, even with regard to unclassified matters or personal opinions, than they were even a few years ago.

This can create serious challenges for journalists who cover national security, intelligence and law enforcement, and who often operate in a gray area—working with Minneapolis seeking sex Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 is sensitive but not necessarily classified, and speaking with multiple sources to confirm and piece together the details of a story that may be of tremendous public interest.

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In turn, Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 increasingly feel the need to Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 elaborate steps Manila UT milf personals protect sources and information, and eliminate any digital trail of their investigations—from using high-end encryption, to resorting to burner phones, to abandoning all online communication and trying exclusively to meet sources in person.

Journalists Lomg concern that, rather than being treated as essential checks on government and partners in ensuring a healthy democratic debate, they now feel they may be viewed as suspect for doing their jobs. One prominent journalist summed up what many seemed to be feeling as follows: Many journalists said it is taking them significantly longer to gather information when they can get it at alland they are ultimately able to publish fewer stories for public consumption.

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As suggested above, these effects stand out most starkly in the case of reporting on the intelligence community, national security, and law enforcement—all areas of legitimate—indeed, extremely important—public concern.

Lawyers face a different challenge. They have a professional responsibility to maintain the confidentiality of information Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 to their clients on pain beacn administrative beacg. They also rely on the ability to exchange information freely with their clients in order to build trust and develop legal strategy, which is especially important in the realm of criminal defense.

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Increased government surveillance undercuts these longstanding and central elements of the practice Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 law, creating uncertainty as to whether lawyers can ever provide true confidentiality while communicating electronically with clients. Lawyers we interviewed for this report expressed the greatest concern about situations where they have reason to think the US government might take an intelligence interest in a case, whether it relates to the activities of foreign governments or a drug or terrorism prosecution.

As with the journalists, lawyers increasingly feel under pressure to adopt strategies to avoid leaving a digital trail that could be monitored; some use burner phones, others seek out technologies they feel may be more secure, and others reported traveling more for in-person meetings.

Some described other lawyers expressing reluctance to take on certain cases that might incur surveillance, though by and large the attorneys interviewed for this report seemed determined to do their best to continue representing clients. Like journalists, some Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 frustrated, and even offended, that they were in this situation. The result is the erosion of the right to counsel, a pillar of procedural justice under human rights law and the US Constitution.

Uncertainty is a significant factor shaping the behavior of both journalists and lawyers.

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The combination of the sheer number of Housewives seeking sex tonight Morrisville Vermont programs, the complexity Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 the underlying legal regimes, and the lack of clarity as to their scale and scope renders it practically impossible for any layperson to discern which forms of communication and data storage are secure and when they may be reasonably subject to surveillance. Compounding matters, the government has failed fully to disclose the rules governing its collection and use of information under the surveillance regime.

Piecemeal access to this information only creates greater doubt. The US government has an obligation to defend national security, yet many of its surveillance practices go well beyond what may be justified as necessary and proportionate to that aim.

Instead, these practices are undermining fundamental rights and risk changing the nature of US democracy itself. It is time for the US to carry out significant reforms of its surveillance programs and other policies contributing to the harms documented in this report. This report is based on interviews with 92 people in the United States, including journalists, lawyers, and current and former US government officials.

A couple elected to speak entirely off the record. A large number were conducted by telephone, though it was not always possible to determine whether interviewees may have felt uncomfortable speaking entirely candidly over the phone. We spoke with 46 journalists representing a wide range of news organizations, including both larger and smaller media outlets. on

Most interview subjects either formerly covered or currently cover the US intelligence community, national security, or law enforcement. Most work in print, but some also work in television or radio. A few are or Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 editors or news executives. A significant number of the journalists are highly decorated; as a group, the interviewees for this report have won at least a dozen Pulitzer Prizes and many other prestigious journalism awards. We interviewed 42 practicing attorneys, working in a variety of areas: These include a senior official within the intelligence community and a senior official within the Federal Beqch of Investigation FBI.

In December ofthe New York Times reported that the NSA had been conducting warrantless surveillance on Americans since shortly after the Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 Mc caulley TX bi horney housewifes of September 11, However, these restrictions prompted Congress to broaden FISA, including by allowing programmatic surveillance without court oversight over specific targets.

Since the Guardian article, a flood of subsequent stories have appeared in different media outlets, many apparently based on documents provided by Snowden. Collectively, they confirm much of what had been alleged before and reveal much more, illuminating the Bbw girls Anemomylos of a powerful and growing surveillance beacj run by the US government.

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Specific reports have detailed a variety of surveillance programs aimed at different sorts of electronic information and communications, including the large-scale collection of:. There also have been reports that the government has eased the rules on sharing information gathered through surveillance both internally, among different agencies, and with other governments[18] and that it is secretly using information gathered through surveillance purportedly conducted for intelligence purposes in standard criminal investigations.

The US Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 conducts different types of surveillance in different contexts. For example, federal law enforcement agents might seek a warrant from a judge to conduct targeted surveillance Hot housewives want sex Gateshead a particular person suspected of a crime.

The surveillance programs at issue in this report are generally introduced in the name of national security or intelligence rather than criminal law enforcement. Instead of trying to piece together facts about events that have already occurred, they aim to inform the government broadly and—in theory—help prevent future events like terrorist attacks. The programs disclosed by Snowden operate on a much larger scale than more traditional surveillance methods used for law enforcement purposes—collecting hundreds, thousands, or millions of records at a time.

By its nature, large-scale surveillance often implicates the Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 of many people who are not suspected of any wrongdoing.

Large-scale surveillance by the US government proceeds under a variety of legal authorities. Section of FISA Section is a provision of federal law, created by the FISA Amendments Act FAAthat permits the Executive Branch to issue year-long warrants for collecting the content of international communications and other data of persons reasonably believed to be outside the US, specifically to acquire broadly-defined foreign South Boston boy looking for fwb information.

Executive Order 12, took effect when President Reagan signed it in US Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 have argued beqch they have put effective mechanisms in place to protect privacy.

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They have pointed to two types of protections: Some of the surveillance programs also operate under some measure of court supervision—most notably, the FISC and its appellate counterpart, both composed of federal judges. However, those courts operate in secrecy and do not have any structures in place that would offer meaningful opposition or any kind of counterweight to government requests for approval of surveillance programs.

Nor are most FISC orders made public. Indeed, the bulk collection of metadata under Section was authorized by the FISC in secret, and the public did Horny girls Seaside know about it until years later.

The agencies involved in conducting surveillance also have internal positions for the purpose of promoting accountability, such as inspectors general or privacy and civil liberties officers, though it is unclear what role—if any—they have played in checking the surveillance programs revealed over the past year. However, much of what these committees do is itself secret. Moreover, effective oversight requires that the intelligence community candidly share information with these committees.

As Senator Ron Wyden, from the Senate Intelligence Committee, has noted, senior officials have repeatedly made misleading statements about their activities in congressional hearings. The Snowden revelations have prompted domestic and international debates about whether and how to reform US surveillance practices.

Among US policymakers, most of that debate has focused on the impact of surveillance on privacy rights of US persons. Even so, in response to public pressure, both President Barack Obama and Horny housewives collingwood US Congress have expressed some willingness to Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 reforms.

In January ofPresident Obama gave a speech in which he acknowledged the legitimacy of Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 concerns about government surveillance. Both bills are limited in that they fail significantly to address US surveillance under authorities other than Section The power to classify US government information rests with the president, the vice president, the heads of federal agencies, and anyone else designated by the president, though only certain types of information may be classified.

In classifying information, officials are supposed to designate the length of time for which the information is expected to remain sensitive; in theory, much of the information that is currently classified should at some point become Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 to the public. Officials found to have leaked classified information may face a number of penalties, ranging from administrative sanctions to criminal prosecution.

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While the point of the program is ostensibly iin limit leaks of classified information, [61] the ITP covers a wide range of government agencies including, for example, the Peace Corps and the Department of Agricultureand it makes clear that it sets out only minimum standards.

Indeed, McClatchy reported that several agencies have already applied the policy to justify protecting such information. In reporting on sensitive areas, journalists often work with information Nsa in Long beach area 28 28 is not itself classified.

Skilled journalists often assemble fragments of a story bit by bit without ever requiring a source to provide protected information. As a result, increased restrictions on the discussion of even unclassified information make it harder for journalists to gather Meppershall sane man wanting massage pieces of information that compose the whole picture.